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ایلام و كشاورزی - نقرس در طیور 2
ایلام و كشاورزی
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درباره وبلاگ


با عرض سلام و درود به محضر همه دوستان این وبلاگ توسط اینجانب فرهاد رستمی ساکن شهرستان چرداول از توابع استان ایلام و دانشجوی دکترای تخصصی (Ph.D) علوم دامی (گرایش تغذیه دام وطیور)، برای استفاده تولیدکنندگان زحمت کش بخش کشاورزی و دامپروری و سایر مشاغل خانگی رایج در استان طراحی گردیده و سعی براین است که نکات آموزشی و توصیه های علمی و تجربی خویش را در خدمت این عزیزان قرار دهم امیداست بتوان به سهم خود در خدمت جامعه تولیدکنندگان استان ایلام ومیهن عزیزمان ایران اسلامی باشم

مدیر وبلاگ :فرهاد رستمی
مطالب اخیر
نویسندگان
نظرسنجی
مشكل عمده كشاورزان را در كدامیك می دانید






عوامل ایجاد کننده نقرس را می توان در سه بخش عمده عوامل تغذیه ای و مدیریتی، عوامل عفونی،عوامل توکسیک طبقه بندی نمود.

عوامل تغذیه ای ومدیریتی :

1-بالا بودن میزان كلسیم

2-بالا بودن میزان ویتامین D3

3-مصرف بیش از اندازه بی كربنات سدیم

4-كمبود ویتامین A

5-كمبود ومحرومیت از آب( نوع آبخوری قفس مرغ تخمگذار)

6-بالا بودن میزان سدیم

7-بالا بودن میزان پروتئین جیره

8-اشتباهات فردی(كارگری) مثلاً، دادن دان مرغان تخمگذار به پولت ها

9- استفاده از آب های سنگین وسخت

10- مخلوط شدن تصادفی اوره در پودر ماهی

11- استفاده از جیره های حاوی سنگ آهك با اندازه نامناسب( گرانوله درشت )

12-فسفر جیره تا حدی كلیه ها را در برابر آسیب های ناشی از انباشت كلسیم محافظت می كند. فسفر به عنوان یك اسیدیفایر ادراری عمل كرده و در پیشگیری از تشكیل سنگ های كلیوی مؤثر است. نهایتاً ؛ فسفر قابل دسترس پایین در جیره های رشد، در وقوع نقرس بطور زیادی دخالت دارد

 

عوامل عفونی:

1-برونشیت عفونی

2-ویروس نفریت پرندگان

3-منوسیتوز طیور( تاج آبی)

4-بیماری عفونی بورس(گامبورو)

عوامل توكسیك

1-مایكوتوكسین ها

2-اكراتوكسین

3-آنتی بیوتیك

4-ضدعفونی كننده ها

5-حشره كش ها

 

درمان نقرس

روش رایج در درمان و کاهش تلفات ناشی از نقرس در پولتها و مرغهای تخم گذار اسیدی کردن ادرار جهت حل شدن سنگهای کلیه و حفاظت از فعالیت کلیه در پرندگان مبتلاست. جیره تجربی حاوی آمونیوم کلراید، آمونیوم سولفات، DL- متیونین و آنالوگ هیدروكسی متیونین (Alimet) همگی به خوبی باعث اسیدی کردن ادرار شده و ضایعات کلیوی ناشی از کلسیم را به حداقل می رسانند. در گله هائی که مبتلا به نقرس بودند مصرف آمونیوم سولفات به میزان ۵ کیلوگرم در تن موجب آبکی شدن مدفوع شده که در مورد سایر ترکیبات چنین حالتی وجود ندارد. در شروع درمان میزان کمتری از مقادیر توصیه شده استفاده شود و بتدریج و برای مدت چند هفته بر مقدار آن افزوده شده تا به حد نهایی برسد. چندین هفته بعد از درمان اگر نتایج مطلوب بدست آمد باید بتدریج به حذف دارو اقدام نمود. با این وجود ممکن است مصرف مقدار کمی از دارو تا پایان دوره مورد نیاز باشد. فاکتورهایی مانند تعادل الکترولیتهای بدن، سموم قارچی، و محرومیت از آب به عنوان عامل کمک کننده احتمالی باید مورد توجه قرار گیرند. بعلاوه هر ماده غذائی که باعث قلیائی شدن ادرار می شود در صورت توام شدن با افزایش کلسیم جیره، افزایش تلفات را نیز همراه خواهد داشت. بهرحال در صورت بروز نقرس افزودن مواد اسیدی کننده ادرار با حل سنگهای کلیه و پیشگیری از تشکیل سنگهای جدید باعث کاهش تلفات می شود.

 

جمع بندی كلی :
بروز تلفات نقرس در پولت ها و مرغان تخمگذار، بیانگر وقوع بعضی از اشكال آسیب های كلیوی در یك مرحله ی زمانی زودتر، در حیات گله بوده است. تحقیقات، ارتباط زیادی را بین بیماری برونشیت و استفاده از جیره های نامتوازن ( از نظر نسبت كلسیم به فسفر ) به عنوان علل عمده تلفات نقرس ثابت و حمایت می كنند. از آنجاییكه احتمالاً مساله ی مذكور ، علت اصلی وقوع بیشتر موارد نقرس باشد، عوامل دیگری مانند تغادل الكترولیت ها، مایكوتوكسین ها و محرومیت گله از آب نیز می توانند در ایجاد و تشدید نقرس دخالت داشته باشند.علاوه بر این؛ استفاده از هر نوع جیره ای كه باعث افزایش میزان قلیایی شدن ادرار شود همراه با درصد بالای كلسیم، می تواند موجب ایجاد نقرس و تلفات حاصل از آن در پولت ها و مرغان تخمگذار شود. میزان تلفات در گله ی مبتلا به نقرس را می توان از طریق افزایش اسیدیته ی ادرار به منظور محلول نمودن سنگ های كلیوی موجود یا پیشگیری از تشكیل سنگ های كلیوی اضافی، كاهش داد
هرگونه عامل زمینه ساز تغذیه ای یا محیطی باید درمان یا برطرف شود. پرنده مبتلا باید با جیره کم پروتئین تغذیه گردد. مایع درمانی مناسب هم لازم است. استفاده از داروهایی نظیر آلوپورینول ، پروبنسید یا کلشی سین ممکن است مدنظر قرار گیرد اما باید در مورد میزان مصرف آنها احتیاط کرد. اغلب پرندگان به ادامه درمان تا پایان زندگی نیاز دارند. اگر آرتریت ناشی از نقرس شدید باشد باید از طریق جراحی کریستالها را از مفصل خارج کرد. اغلب اوقات آسیب وارده به مفاصل یا ارگانها برگشت پذیر نیست.

برای کاهش درد از داروهای مرتبط نظیر آسپیرین استفاده می شود.





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پنجشنبه 13 آذر 1393
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چهارشنبه 19 تیر 1398 08:29 ب.ظ
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دوشنبه 17 تیر 1398 01:06 ب.ظ
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یکشنبه 16 تیر 1398 10:46 ق.ظ
We're having coffee at Nylon Coffee Roasters on Everton Park in Singapore.
I'm having black coffee, he's possessing a cappuccino.

They are handsome. Brown hair slicked back,
glasses which fit his face, hazel eyes and the most
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‘Why Andrew? You're so handsome. I'd never reject you ',
I have faith that He smiles at me, biting his lip.

‘Oh, I would not know. Everything happens for good reason right.
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‘No, how could I?' , I replied

"So, can you mind if I kissed you at the moment?' he stated as I purchase nearer to him and kiss him.

‘The next occasion don't ask, accomplish it.' I reply.

‘I enjoy the method that you think.' , he said.

While waiting, I start scrubbing my your back heel within his leg, massaging it slowly. ‘Precisely what do you like ladies? And, Andrew, don't spare me the details.' I ask.

‘I adore determined women. Someone that knows what you want. Someone who won't say yes although I said yes. Someone who's not scared when attemping a new challenge,' he says. ‘I'm never afraid when you try interesting things, especially in terms of making new stuff in bed ', I intimate ‘And I like girls that are direct, who cut throughout the chase, like you only did. For being
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شنبه 15 تیر 1398 03:23 ق.ظ
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His smile was decadent, his eyes were full of lust, along
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I used to be feeling a stronger arousal now as I felt his cock slide between my sensitive lips.
I felt your head of his cock push agonizingly at the entrance
of my pussy, and I needed him to thrust into me hard.
Instead he retracted and slid his hardness back around my
clit.

I had been aching to acquire him inside, and I can tell that his must
push that wonderful hard cock inside me was growing.

His moans grew to match mine, and I knew the sensation of
my wet pussy lips about the head of his cock was getting excessive for of us.


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Both of us gasped as they held his cock there for just a moment.
I contracted my pussy to drag him further inside, and hubby threw his head back within the sensation.
Inch by excruciating inch he pushed his cock inside
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پنجشنبه 30 خرداد 1398 04:48 ب.ظ
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لبخندناراحتچشمک
نیشخندبغلسوال
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ماچتعجبعصبانی
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